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3 edition of Interference method for the measurement of the speed of sound in liquids ... found in the catalog.

Interference method for the measurement of the speed of sound in liquids ...

Balderston, Lloyd.

Interference method for the measurement of the speed of sound in liquids ...

by Balderston, Lloyd.

  • 82 Want to read
  • 28 Currently reading

Published by Randal Morgan Laboratory of Physics in [Philadelphia] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Sound, Velocity of,
  • Interference (Sound)

  • Edition Notes

    Thesis (PH. D.)--University of Pennsylvania.

    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQC233 .B17
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 p. l., 13 p.
    Number of Pages13
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL6976995M
    LC Control Number06040563
    OCLC/WorldCa21358785

      I claim: 1. A method for measuring sound velocity in a liquid, said method comprising the transmitting of a sound pulse or a group of sound pulses to the liquid to be measured and the measuring of the transit time of the sound pulse or the group of sound pulses in the liquid to be measured, the sound pulse or the group of sound pulses being .   The use of an acoustic cavity to measure the speed of sound (c) in a gas dates to the work of Kundt in the midth century, and the determination of c (and thus γ) has become a classic physical chemistry laboratory the traditional method, a sample of gas is held in a sealed tube, and sound waves produced from an audio sine wave generator are Author: Thomas D. Varberg, Bradley W. Pearlman, Ian A. Wyse, Samuel P. Gleason, Dalir H. P. Kellett, Kenneth.

    Two approaches were employed to determine the velocity of sound in solids. In Jean-Baptiste Biot, a French physicist, conducted direct measurements of the speed of sound in 1, metres of iron pipe by comparing it with the speed of sound in air. A better measurement had earlier been carried out by a German. methods, modified from each of the methods mentioned, to measure the speed of sound in a solid rod. In the first method, a fast timer is used instead of a CRO to measure the time required for a compression pulse to travel in a metal rod from end to end. In the second method, the frequency Phys. Educ. 35(6) November

    For monatomic gases, the speed of sound is about 75% of the mean speed that the atoms move in that gas. For a given ideal gas the molecular composition is fixed, and thus the speed of sound depends only on its temperature. At a constant temperature, the gas pressure has no effect on the speed of sound, Characteristic: Symbols. An experimental investigation was undertaken to ascertain the potential of using Helmholtz resonance for volume determination and the factors that may influence accuracy. The uses for a rapid non-interference volume measurement system range from agricultural produce and mineral sampling through to liquid fill measurements. By weighing the sample the density can Cited by:


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Interference method for the measurement of the speed of sound in liquids .. by Balderston, Lloyd. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Diffraction of light by an ultrasonic phase grating enables a direct measurement of the wavelength of acoustic waves in liquids. If the acoustic frequency is known independently, it can be combined with the measured acoustic wavelength to determine the speed of sound in by: 6.

An Interference method for the measurement of the speed of sound in liquids By Lloyd. Balderston Topics: Interference (Sound), Sound, Velocity of. Publisher: [Philadelphia] Randal Morgan Laboratory of Physics.

Year: OAI identifier: oai::MIU01 Author: Lloyd. Balderston. An apparatus for accurate measurements of the sound velocity in fluids is described, which is based on the pulse-echo technique, and operates up to 30 MPa in the temperature range between ( and ) K.

The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in the speed of sound measurements are %, 6 mK in the temperature, hPa in the pressure up to 3 MPa, Cited by:   In fluids like air, sound waves propagate through successive longitudinal perturbations of compression and decompression.

Audible sound frequencies for human ears range from 20 to 20 Hz. In this study, the speed of sound v in the air is determined using the identification of maxima of interference from two synchronous waves at frequency by: 2. An optical method to determine a speed of sound (or ultrasound) in water was described in this work.

The measuring system composes of ultrasonic transducer, glass water bath, He-Ne laser source, lens, and screen. An ultrasound fog generator used for producing an ultrasound with a frequency f of MHz was immersed in DI : Pattanan Meethom, Kheamrutai Thamaphat, Pichet Limsuwan, Orrawan Rewthong.

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying liquids inside sealed munitions. The SFAI. Average speed of sound comes out to be m/s (by calculating speed at every harmonic and taking average) Resolution in resonance region is 5 Hz frequencyFile Size: 1MB.

An interference method for controlling the refractive index of liquids pumped through a capillary is considered. The liquid is sounded by two systems of interference bands, the period of which differs by an insignificant value prescribed by the condition of nonius coincidence.

in air speed of sound is 20 degrees Celcius, at speed of m/s the time the object takes to travel from highest point to the lowest and back to the highest. when an object is hanging on the end of vertical spring and oscillating up and down, which of these is a period.

We are dividing by the number of standing waves because having multiple standing waves means the frequency is cycling multiple times per sound “bounce.” This is important, as it allows more precise readings of the speed of sound. Use a higher number of standing waves if you can. Measurement of sound velocity in liquid using the acoustic material signature F.

Guillon Department of Physics, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1 K Received 12 April The method of acoustic material signature, which has been used extensively for the study of materials, is shown to be an attractive new method of measurement Cited by: 3.

STEP 4 - CALCULATE. SPEED=DISTANCE/TIME. To work out the speed of the sound in metres per second, divide the distance in metres by the average time in seconds.

For example metres divided by 0. Echo technology and time based speed of sound measurements are not new,[] but this technique allows a student lab group or teacher performing a demonstration to make precise speed of sound measurements with a notebook computer, Vernier LabQuest, or other sound digitizer that allows the sound pressure vs.

time waveform to be viewed. 2 Abstract In this paper, a new general formula for the sound speed in adiabatic conditions (S = const) has been established. The sound speed depends on the mass density ρ()p,T and the internal energy per unit mass E()p,T, both expressed as functions of the pressure p and the temperature formula has been compared with experimental data on the example ofCited by: 2.

The speeds of sound data were reproducible within ± m s− reliability of experimental measurements of speed of sound was ascertained by comparing the experimental data of the pure liquids with the corresponding literature values [17.

where the time period t can be of arbitrary duration. It is determined from sound pressure, using microphones in air and hydrophones in water.

Finding the velocity v from equations and is a first step in measuring average sound-power finite-difference approximations based on Taylor series expansions, the pressure gradient in equation is determined using the difference.

measurement of speed of the sound in air is the measurement by the acoustic interferometer. The acoustic interferometer is the device which measures the phase difference between two acoustic waves with the same frequencies and different phases [5].

The technique is based on the comparison of theFile Size: KB. The speeds of sound in water measured by Del Grosso and Mader [J. Acoust. Soc. 52, – ()], Kroebel and Mahrt [Acust – ()], and Fujii and Masui [J.

93, – ()] were compared.A fairly good agreement was found. A new fifth-order polynomial describing the dependence of the speed of sound in water on Cited by: Speed of sound. Although sound travels quite fast, it is still possible to measure its speed in air.

To do this, you need to measure the time it takes a sound to travel a measured distance. To reduce errors, particularly timing errors, you should either: use a.

Linear temperature compensation, c = + θ, was implemented to dynamically adjust the speed of sound constant within the Helmholtz equation, where θ is in degrees Celsius.

Adjustments for humidity were not made, as its contribution is small and not able to provide any measurement benefits or increased by:. The speed of sound refers to the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through a medium.

The speed of sound in air at 20 o C is m/s which translates to 1, km/h. The speed of sound in gases is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin) but it is independent of the frequency of.The speed of sound in three phases of matter is determined by focusing a pulsed laser into a gas, liquid, or solid to produce a sharp sound pulse.

The time for this sound to travel a known distance through these materials is then measured to determine the sound velocity. These measurements use electronic detection of sound with microphones and detection of light .62 Experiment Speed of Sound in Air Advance Reading Text: Speed of sound, longitudinal waves, wavelength, frequency, standing wave, resonance.

Objective The objective of this experiment is to measure the speed of sound in air. Theory There are a variety of wave types. Sound is a longitudinal wave requiring a medium in which to propagate.